Klein Educational offers a wide range of Armfield Learning Education Systems.
Below are some brief overviews of the various Learning Teaching Systems. We offer Teaching systems for Acquisition & Control Software, Desktop Learning Modules, Fluid Machines, Heat Transfer, Hydraulics & Hydrology, Irrigation Water Management, Mechanical Engineering, Refrigeration & Air Conditioning, Structural Engineering, Thermodynamics, Water Treatment, and more. See below or contact us for more details.
Multi-Purpose Teaching Flume
The Armfield Multi-purpose Teaching Flume has been specifically designed to demonstrate the principles of fluid mechanics when applied to engineering structures in open channel flow.
Fluid Friction Measurements
The Armfield C6MkII provides facilities for the detailed study of fluid friction head losses which occur when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes, fittings and flow metering devices. For use with the Armfield F1-10 Hydraulics bench.
Complete Fluid Mechanics Laboratory – F1-10
Based around the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench, this range of equipment has been extended and reinforced with an integrated range of hydrostatics teaching accessories and some new hydraulics products. Thus the complete curriculum can be covered.
Osborne Reynolds’ Apparatus
A robust item of equipment designed to reproduce the classic experiments of Professor Osborne Reynolds.
Air Flow Studies
The Armfield Air Flow Studies Unit has been designed to demonstrate how to measure the important characteristics of industrial air-distribution systems. It also shows how certain basic principles of fluid mechanics are applied to analyse flow in ducts and jets.
Fluid Properties & Hydrostatics Bench
The F9092 demonstrates the properties of fluids and their behaviour under hydrostatic conditions, enabling students to develop an understanding and knowledge of a wide range of fundamental principles before studying fluids in motion.
Hydrogen Bubble Flow Visualisation System
The F14MkII facilitates the viewing of the complex flow patterns associated with water flowing past solid objects or boundaries. The system uses the ‘hydrogen bubble technique’ to clearly show changes in the direction of the water.
Soil/Water Model Tank
A free-standing, self-contained apparatus for laboratory-scale investigations of surface irrigation and related systems, including the surface and sub-surface effects of water application.
The FEL3 can be used in the laboratory or the field for simulated soil erosion and stabilisation studies. Ideal for investigating the relationship between rainfall and soil erosion, and identifying methods by which erosion may be prevented.
The FEL6 provides a useful means of measuring evapotranspiration by the water-balance method. Suitable for both student project work and demonstrational purposes.
Centrifugal Pump Demonstration Unit
The centrifugal pump is the machine most commonly used to move liquids from one place to another. As such it is a particularly instructive unit that introduces students to the whole subject of rotodynamic fluid machines.
Series and Parallel Pumps Demonstration Unit
Centrifugal pumps are often used together to enhance either the flow rate or the delivery pressure beyond that available from the single pump. The FM51 is designed to demonstrate the operational advantages of parallel or series operation.
Turbine Service Unit
The FM6X Turbine Service unit is required to operate the FM60, FM61 and FM62 turbine demonstrations. The unit includes a compact three-phase pump, controlled directly from a PC via the IFD7 interface unit (an essential accessory).
Vernier Hook & Point Gauges
The Armfield H1 Vernier Hook & Point Gauges are ideal for the measurement of steady state water surface position, as is frequently needed during hydraulic investigations.
Series Liquid Manometers
A range of general purpose laboratory manometers using liquid displacement to measure differential pressure.
Computer Compatible Manometer Bank
The Armfield H14/2 is designed to replace banks of manometers when used in conjunction with a number of Armfield products. 16 simultaneous pressure measurements can be displayed on a user-supplied computer, and the information data logged.
Computer Controlled Heat Transfer Teaching Equipment
The Armfield HT10XC is a computer-controlled service unit, which supports several accessories. These provide a wide range of demonstrations into the modes of heat transfer, factors that affect heat transfer, and some of the associated problems.
Computer Controlled Heat Exchanger Service Module
A range of small-scale heat exchangers, designed to illustrate the principles and techniques of indirect heat transfer between fluid streams. Different types of heat exchanger can be mounted on this common benchtop service unit.
Laboratory Flumes and Channels for Hydraulic Teaching and Research Studies
Armfield Ltd has been designing and supplying open channel facilities (flumes) to hydraulic laboratories throughout the world for over 50 years. We have now introduced a new suite of standard research flumes, both tilting and fixed bed, available in several working lengths and a variety of operating modes. Also added to the range are computer control and data logging packages for S6MkII flumes.
River Flow Simulator
The Armfield S17 simulation tank demonstrates river feature formation, including flow and bed load motion, making an excellent introduction to the study of fluvial geomorphology and can also demonstrate sophisticated and advanced concepts for research purposes.
Glass Sided Tilting Flume
One of the most important tools to the hydraulics engineer, the S6MkII laboratory flume features a wide range of optional instruments and models to offer extensive demonstration capabilities in all aspects of open channel flow.
Advanced Hydrology Study System
The S12 demonstrates significant physical processes found in hydrology and fluvial geomorphology, including rainfall hydrographs for catchment areas of varying permeability, and the formation of river features and the effects of sediment transport.
Temperature Measurement and Calibration
The Armfield Temperature Measurement and Calibration unit is designed to introduce students to temperature, and how different techniques can be employed to measure this variable.
Pressure Measurement and Calibration
The TH2 introduces students to the physical science of pressure, exploring the concepts of pressure, calibration, engineering units, errors and linearity using a Bourdon pressure gauge and pressure sensor connected to a dead weight pressure calibrator.
The TH3 demonstrates how the temperature of water behaves at its boiling point with variation in the absolute pressure. Saturation curves can be generated, and the quality of steam exiting the apparatus can be determined.
The continuous activated sludge process has been successfully employed in public health engineering installations for nearly a century. The W11 is designed as a comprehensive study facility of this process.
Armsoft Software – ACORELV
Powerful LabView acquisition and control software.
Armfield Software Series – ArmSoft
Powerful data entry, data logging, acquisition and control software.
Recirculating Air Conditioning Unit
The floor standing RA3 Recirculating Air Conditioning Unit features all the facilities of the RA2, plus adjustable recirculation of air, additional sensors, and a recirculation facility via an enclosed climate control chamber.
Vapour-Compression Refrigeration Unit
The vapour-compression refrigeration system is the most common refrigeration system used today. RA1MKII is a computer controlled system, which enables the student to gain a thorough understanding of the refrigeration process.
Statics & Vibrations
Statics & Vibrations from Armfield Didactec Sanderson introduces students to Statics, Structures, Vibration, Balancing and Materials Testing theories within mechanical, automotive and civil engineering.
Understanding Structural Behaviour – Structural Engineering Teaching Equipment
A pioneering new approach to the teaching of structural engineering.
A fusion of innovative software, unique hardware and the authoritative textbook provide a firm foundation on the understanding of structural behavior.
Desktop Learning Modules
The DLMX represents the very best in modern engineering teaching equipment. The system is a highly visual learning tool that can be used to teach Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermofluids to students of all ages.
Fire Testing Technology Series
Code: FTT Series
The Armfield FTT Series is designed to introduce students to the fundamental principles of measuring reaction to fire, exploring the concepts of ignition, flame spread, smoke production, heat release and toxicity.
Flow Meter Demonstration Unit
The Armfield C9 Flow Meter Demonstration Unit is a self-contained facility for the demonstration of the important characteristics of 14 types of flow meter used in the measurement of water flow through pipes or open channels.
Laminar Flow Table
The Armfield Laminar Flow Table has been designed to simulate ideal fluid flow and give clear visualisation of the flow patterns created using water as the working fluid. This enables a comprehensive investigation into the principles of potential flow and enables modelling of appropriate physical systems.
Multi-Pump Test Rig
The C3MkII has been designed to demonstrate the operating characteristics (headflow curves and efficiency) of a series of different types of pumps, each having a broadly similar input power.
Pipe Surge and Water Hammer Apparatus
The C7MKII demonstrates pipe surge and water hammer, phenomena which occur when fluid flowing in a pipe is accelerated or decelerated. As associated pressure transients can damage pipework, systems must be designed to avoid or withstand them.
Pipe Network Apparatus
The C11MkII Pipe Network Apparatus is designed to help students understand the behavior of pipe networks and predict flow and pressure distributions – essential to the design of systems for the transportation of fluids.
Compressible Flow Unit
A versatile apparatus, based around a variable-speed air compressor, designed to teach the concepts of compressible flow. The basic unit contains everything required to demonstrate the fundamental principles, but an accessory (C1-MkIII-30) is available containing a number of interchangeable test sections to give a wider knowledge and understanding to the student.
A further accessory (C1-MkIII-35) allows full compressor performance and characterization tests to be carried out.
Particle Drag Coefficients
The F12 has been designed to introduce students to the fundamental characteristics of the behaviour of particle/fluid systems, in particular the relationship between the drag coefficients of falling particles and their Reynolds’ number value.
Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Calibrator
This calibrator functions on the same principle adopted in calibrating industrial pressure gauges.
The Hydrostatic Pressure accessory has been designed to determine the static thrust exerted by a fluid on a submerged surface and enables comparison of the measured magnitude and position of this force with simple theory.
Flow Over Weirs
Two different weir plates are provided enabling familiarisation and comparison with theory.
Basic Metacentric Height
This equipment enables a thorough investigation of the factors affecting the stability of a floating body.
Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration
This accessory demonstrates the application of Bernoulli’s Theorem and circumstances where it does not apply.
Impact of a Jet
This equipment enables the force developed by a jet of water impinging upon a stationary object to be measured.
Orifice and Free Jet Flow
This equipment permits calibration of two orifices of differing diameter and enables the trajectory of the jet to be plotted.
Energy Losses in Pipes
This equipment enables the pressure drop of water passing through a hydraulically smooth circular pipe to be measured in detail and the pipe friction equation to be verified.
The Flow Channel introduces students to the characteristics of flow in an open channel at an elementary level.
Osborne Reynolds’ Demonstration
This item is intended to reproduce the classic experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning the nature of laminar and turbulent flow.
Flow Meter Demonstration
This accessory is designed to introduce students to three basic types of flow meter.
Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings
This accessory permits losses in different bends, a sudden contraction, sudden enlargement and a typical control valve to be demonstrated.
Free and Forced Vortex
This equipment is designed to produce and measure the characteristics of free and forced vortices.
Demonstration Pelton Turbine
The Demonstration Pelton Turbine provides a simple low-cost introduction to turbine performance.
The introduction of a second pump to the Hydraulic Bench system enables the study of two pump performance, both in series and parallel operation.
Centrifugal Pump Characteristics
This accessory offers similar features to the F1-26, but with enhanced capabilities provided by the inclusion of a variable-speed pump with inverter drive rather than a fixed-speed pump.
This accessory visually, audibly and numerically demonstrates the phenomenon of cavitation and its association with the vapor pressure of a liquid.
Fluid Statics and Manometry
This apparatus provides an introduction to the behavior of liquids under hydrostatic conditions (fluid at rest) and the application of these principles to pressure measurement using manometers.
Fluid Properties Apparatus
This apparatus provides an introduction to the fundamental properties of liquids that affect their behavior in practical applications.
The Pascal’s Apparatus provides a simple demonstration that the pressure in an incompressible fluid varies with depth and does not depend on the shape of the container.
Demonstration Francis Turbine
This demonstration turbine provides a simple low-cost introduction to the Francis inward flow reaction turbine showing its construction, operation and performance.
Pitot Tube Demonstrator
The pitot tube can be moved across the cross-section of the pipe in order to measure the dynamic head profile.
The Orifice Discharge accessory enables full analysis of the flow through seven different orifices over a range of flow rates.
Armsoft Fluid Mechanics Software
Educational software, specifically developed for the Armfield Hydraulics Bench and associated accessories, offering a complete teaching package of coursework and laboratory investigation.
Soil Moisture Suction Sand Table
Primarily for the derivation of soil moisture characteristic curves, the FEL4 helps in understanding the principle of water retentivity and its relationship with soil moisture levels.
Demonstration Infiltration Apparatus
The FEL5 provides a simple but effective laboratory demonstration of the infiltration processes which are fundamental to all forms of irrigation study.
Suitable as a demonstrational tool or for laboratory based testing and research, the FEL10 enables the investigation of field drain filter materials. The unit allows students to determine relative efficiencies and optimum filter/soil combinations.
Gauging and Control Structures
A range of equipment to demonstrate the mode of operation of a variety of control structures, used to establish a command from which water is discharged to an area where it is applied to crops in a surface irrigation distribution network.
Flumes and Gauging Weirs
A series of flumes and weirs for the measurement of water flow rates in open channels. Components are manufactured from tough durable materials yet can be easily handled during installation.
Centrifugal Fan Demonstration Unit
The FM40 is a radial flow machine, which produces the necessary pressure to move gas by the centrifugal force built up inside the fan casing. The design of the fan blade has a primary influence on performance.
Axial Fan Demonstration Unit
The FM41 produces gas flow by virtue of the momentum changes imparted across the rotary blades, parallel to the axis of rotation. Such fans are more suitable for higher flows at lower delivery pressures than their centrifugal counterparts.
Gear Pump Demonstration Unit
The gear pump is the most widely used of the positive action rotary pumps. The FM52 demonstrates a gear pump in operation, and enables the measurement of constant-speed pump performance and outlet pressure against a range of variables.
Plunger Pump Demonstration Unit
The FM53 demonstrates a plunger pump, as used in industry to pump small quanities of liquid at high pressures. Electronic sensors measure the instantaneous cylinder pressure within the pump, the pump displacement and the cumulative flow.
The FM60 is a small-scale impulse turbine unit, which is designed to be used in conjunction with the FM6X service unit. An impulse turbine uses the momentum transferred from the impact of a jet of water onto the turbine blades to generate power.
The FM61 is a small-scale reaction turbine unit, which is designed to be used in conjunction with the FM6X service unit. A reaction turbine uses the momentum transferred from the reaction of a jet of water leaving a nozzle to generate power.
The FM62 is a small-scale Pelton turbine unit, which is designed to be used in conjunction with the FM6X service unit. A Pelton turbine uses the momentum transferred from the impact of a jet of water onto its buckets to generate power.
The FM63 is a self contained, small-scale propeller turbine unit. This fixed blade, axial flow turbine may be considered as the prototype form of a propeller turbine, itself a forerunner of the Kaplan turbine.
Pump Test Accessory
The FM64 is a compact accessory, which allows the FM6X service unit to be used as a pump test accessory.
IFD7 Interface Unit
The Armfield IFD7 Interface Unit is an essential accessory to the Armfield FM Series CAPTURE range of engineering education teaching equipment.
Clean In Place Unit
The Armfield FT52 has been designed to provide additional cleaning performance for Armfield FT units and other equipment. It consists of a high flow rate stainless steel centrifugal pump mounted on a mobile frame.
A range of Pitot tubes for the measurement of water velocity in open channels and closed ducts.
Propeller Velocity Flowmeter
Used to measure and record very low point velocities in water and other conductive fluids, the H33 uses the change in impedance of a rotating multi-bladed impeller to indicate rotational speed caused by the flowing fluid.
Wave Probe System
A simple and robust instrument for the measurement and recording of water waves in hydraulic models and ship tanks, which works on the principle of measuring the electrical conductivity between two parallel wires.
Laser PIV System
The compact, portable H41 Laser PIV System uses particle image velocimetry to measure, non-intrusively, fluid velocities at multiple points in a flow, at rates of up to 16Hz. An ideal, cost effective tool for research and demonstration.
Portable Pressure Meter (0 – 2000mBar)
A versatile, hand held, battery operated portable pressure meter capable of measuring pressures of water or air from 0-2,000 mbar (0-1,500 mmHg).
Portable Pressure Meter (0 – 140mBar)
A versatile, hand held, battery operated portable pressure meter capable of measuring pressures of water or air from 0-140 mBar (0-99.99 mmHg).
Miniature Propeller Probes
Each probe consists of a sensing head that is mounted at the end of a slim stainless steel stem. A co-axial connector at the top of the stem allows the probe to be connected to the H33-10 Digital Indicator.
Digital Hook & Point Gauges
A direct indicating gauge, which eliminates observation errors due to vernier and scale reading. It can be set to zero anywhere in the operating range to permit easy relative level checking.
The Armfield H33-10 Digital Indicator has been developed for use with the miniature propeller probes H33- 1/2/3 where laboratory or field measurement of water velocity is required.
An adjustable mounting tripod constructed from aluminium alloy, supported by three stainless steel rods secured by thumbscrews. For use with Armfield Hook & Point Gauges and Pitot Tubes.
Laws of Radiant Heat Transfer and Radiant Heat Exchange
This Armfield accessory has been designed to demonstrate the laws of radiant heat transfer and radiant heat exchange using light radiation to complement the heat demonstrations where the use of thermal radiation would be impractical. The equipment supplied comprises an arrangement of energy sources, measuring instruments, aperture plates, filter plates and target plates which are mounted on a linear track, in different combinations, to suit the particular laboratory teaching exercise chosen.
Extended Surface Heat Exchanger
A long horizontal rod, which is heated at one end, provides an extended surface (pin) for heat transfer measurements. Thermocouples at regular intervals along the rod allow the surface temperature profile to be measured. By making the diameter of the rod small in relation to its length, thermal conduction along the rod can be assumed to be one-dimensional and heat loss from the tip can be ignored.
Unsteady State Heat Transfer
Analytical solutions are available for temperature distribution and heat flow as a function of time and position for simple solid shapes which are suddenly subjected to convection with a fluid at a constant temperature. Simple shapes are provided together with appropriate classical transient-temperature/heat flow charts which allow a fast analysis of the response from actual transient measurements.
Free and Forced Convection
The Armfield Free and Forced Convection unit has been specifically designed to demonstrate the phenomena of natural (free) and forced convection. Temperature profiles and heat flux over three different heat transfer surfaces can be easily studied.
Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
The shell and tube heat exchanger is commonly used in the food and chemical process industries. This type of exchanger consists of a number of tubes in parallel enclosed in a cylindrical shell. Heat is transferred between one fluid flowing through the tubes and another fluid flowing through the cylindrical shell around the tubes.
Jacketed Vessel with Coil & Stirrer
Vessel heating or cooling of a process liquid in a tank, either batchwise or with continuous product feed, is common practice throughout industry.
Cross Flow Heat Exchanger
The cross flow heat exchanger is commonly used in applications such as heating, ventilating and air conditioning. It is also encountered as vehicle engine radiator.
Thermo-Electric Heat Pump
Based on a Peltier device, the Armfield HT18C Thermo-electric Heat Pump demonstrates how electrical power can be used to extract heat from a cool surface and transfer it to a hot surface.
Tubular Heat Exchangers
The tubular heat exchanger is the simplest form of heat exchanger and consists of two concentric (coaxial) tubes carrying the hot and cold fluids. In these miniature versions the tubes are separated into sections to reduce the overall length and to allow the temperature at points along both fluid streams to be measured.
Plate Heat Exchangers
The plate heat exchanger is extremely versatile and commonly used in the food and chemical processing industries. Different combinations of plates and gaskets can be arranged to suit a particular application. The miniature exchanger supplied consists of a pack of plates with sealing gaskets held together in a frame between end plates. Hot and cold fluids flow between channels on alternate sides of the plates to promote heat transfer.
Linear Heat Conduction
The Armfield Linear Heat Conduction accessory has been designed to demonstrate the application of the Fourier Rate equation to simple steady-state conduction in one dimension.
Radial Heat Conduction
The Armfield Radial Heat Conduction accessories have been designed to demonstrate the application of the Fourier Rate equation to simple steady-state conduction radially through the wall of a tube. The arrangement, using a solid metal disk with temperature measurements at different radii and heat flow radially outwards from the centre to the periphery, allows the temperature distribution and flow of heat by radial conduction to be investigated.
Combined Convection and Radiation
A hot surface loses heat (heat is transferred) to its surroundings by the combined modes of convection and radiation. In practice these modes are difficult to isolate and therefore an analysis of the combined effects at varying surface temperature and air velocity past the surface provides a meaningful teaching exercise.
Radiation Errors in Temperature Measurement
Radiative heat transfer between a thermometer and its surroundings may significantly affect the temperature reading obtained from the thermometer, especially when the temperature of a gas is to be measured while the thermometer ‘sees’ surrounding surfaces at a higher or lower temperature than the gas. The error in the reading from the thermometer is also affected by other factors such as the gas velocity over the thermometer, the physical size of the thermometer and the emissivity of the thermometer body.
Conductivity of Liquids and Gases
The Armfield Conductivity of Liquids and Gases unit has been specifically designed to enable students to measure and compare the thermal conductivities of various liquids and gases.
Drainage and Seepage Tank
Practical demonstration and visualisation are essential elements of fluid flow study. The S1 Drainage and Seepage Tank has been designed to allow students to conduct a highly visual experimental study of flow through permeable media.
Mobile Bed and Flow Visualisation Tank
Practical demonstration and visualisation are essential to fluid flow study. The S2 enables students to conduct experimental studies of flow through permeable media, including mobile bed situations and two dimensional flow visualisation.
The S10 demonstrates, on a small scale, the relationship between rainfall and runoff from catchment areas of variable permeability, and the abstraction of ground water by wells, with or without surface recharge from rainfall.
Ground Water Flow Unit
The S11 provides a small-scale demonstration of the hydrological principles of ground water flow, and their relevance to certain engineering constructions. Particularly suitable for the study of sub-surface water flows.
Hydraulic Flow Demonstrator
The S16 operates as an accessory to the F1-10 Hydraulics Bench, offering a highly visual demonstration of flow through both open channels and close conduits. Includes a unique elevating bed section, and models of various hydraulic structures.
Sediment Transport Demonstration Channel
This improved version of the Armfield Sediment Transport Demonstration Channel enables the demonstration of the full range of bedforms that arise in a mobile bed as the flow and/or slope are increased.
Recycle is a phenomenon, which occurs in everyday life, but can lead to confusion in engineering applications. The TH4 demonstrates recycle, allowing mass and energy balances to be performed under steady and unsteady state conditions.
Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas
The Armfield Expansion Processes of a Perfect Gas apparatus has been designed to introduce students to a range of basic thermodynamic processes using air as the working fluid.
The Armfield Anaerobic Digester is designed as a benchtop training facility and as a means of providing operational process data for plant design purposes.
Ion Exchange Unit
A low cost, bench-mounted unit designed to demonstrate the use of ion-exchange resins for either continuous water softening or demineralisation. Includes monitoring of break-through’ and regeneration cycles.
Flocculation Test Unit
The equipment allows for the well-known ‘jar tests’ to be conducted on water samples requiring treatment to determine the correct coagulant dosage on a laboratory scale as a prelude to full-scale plant operation.
Sedimentation Studies Apparatus
The Armfield Sedimentation Studies Apparatus provides a facility for studying the basic physical processes involved in sedimentation.
Permeability/Fluidisation Studies Apparatus
The Armfield Permeability/Fluidisation Studies Apparatus is designed for students to measure and understand the characteristics of flow through a bed of particles. Such flows occur both naturally (in certain groundwater situations) and in process plant designs.The apparatus can also be used as part of the testing of media for water and waste water filtration.
The Armfield Filterability Apparatus enables a water quality test to be made on a suspension to be filtered through sand or similar granular media. As well as for student teaching, it can be used in routine control at waterworks, or at a sewage treatment works that employs teriary filtration.
Deep Bed Filter Column
The laboratory-scale Armfield Deep Bed Filter Column has been designed to operate identically to full-scale granular filters. Using the same bed depth and filter media, tests on this unit provide operational data, which may be scaled up to full size.
Model Sedimentation Tank
The W7MkII has been designed to demonstrate the hydraulic characteristics and settling efficiencies of a model settling basin. Although scale-up to industrial size sedimentation tanks is difficult, relevant deductions can be made as to how nonuniform flows occur and how these interact with the settling characteristics of particular suspensions.
Ion Exchange Unit
Bench mounted unit designed to demonstrate the use of ion-exchange resins for either continuous water softening or demineralisation.
The purpose of the Armfield Aeration Unit is to permit study of the oxygen transfer characteristics of diffused air systems and the physical and chemical parameters that influence their oxygenation capacity.
The FTT1 Ignitability Apparatus measures the minimum percentage of oxygen in a test atmosphere required to marginally support ignition/combustion. This percentage is referred to as the oxygen index. A higher oxygen index suggests a more fire-resistant material.
Flame Spread Apparatus
The FTT2 Flame Spread Apparatus is designed to study flammability of materials typically used in occupant compartments of motor vehicles, such as passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks and buses.
Smoke Release Apparatus
The FTT3 Smoke Release Apparatus is designed to measure and observe the amount of smoke produced when a material combusts. The measurements are made in terms of the loss of light transmission through a collected volume as a result of smoke produced under controlled, standardised conditions. Two indexes, the maximum smoke produced and the smoke-density rating, are used to rate the material.
Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter
The FTT4 Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter is a high-resolution isoperibolic temperature-regulated oxygen bomb calorimeter with embedded control computer.
The bomb calorimeter is the most common device for measuring the heat of combustion or calorific value of a material. With this apparatus a test specimen of specified mass is burned under standardised conditions. The heat of combustion determined under these conditions is calculated on the basis of the observed temperature rise while taking account of heat loss.
Heat Release and Mass Loss Calorimeter
The FTT5 Heat Release and Mass Loss Calorimeter measures ignitability, mass loss rate and heat release. It is a simplified version of the widely used Cone Calorimeter in fire researches and industries.
The FTT6 Toxicity Apparatus measures the toxicity of combustion products when a material is completely burnt in excess air in a closed chamber of fixed volume. The combustion products are collected in the chamber and then analysed using colorimetric tubes to measure the concentrations of various toxic gases.
The FTT 7 Cone Calorimeter is the most significant bench-scale instrument in the field of fire testing because it measures important real fire properties of the material being tested under a variety of pre-set conditions. These measurements can be used directly by students/academics, or used as data for input into correlation or mathematical models used to predict fire development.